To build a basement in a building, there are several things that should also be considered, namely:
Paying Attention to Borderlines
When going to start building, pay attention to the position of the basement boundary line. Usually the position of the basement boundary line is more advanced than the building boundary line and is closer to the fence boundary line.
Paying Attention to Conditions Around the Built Area
Basement construction needs to know the conditions that exist in the ground, considering that it is often used for utility lines such as plumbing, telephone and electricity networks.
In addition to the utility of the building, also pay attention to the surrounding environment, especially the area that borders on the neighbors, considering that the walls built in the basement cannot all coincide with neighboring walls because it will interfere with the strength of the building.
If the basement is attached to one of the neighboring walls, then we can use sheet piles. Sheet pile is generally made of steel or concrete which functions as a retaining wall.
Retaining walls are useful for resisting soil and water pressure loads. If the neighboring residence adjacent to the basement area has two floors, then the safest way to go is to make a distance of about 1.5 meters from the neighboring wall.
Groundwater conditions in each region are different. If the groundwater level in the built-up land is high enough, there are several ways that can be done. The first step is to prepare the pump, then block the work area around it with plastic or tarpaulin.
This is done to anticipate water logging disturbances during the construction process (casting and assembling reinforcement). Next, make trenches around the basement construction area to drain water around the site and then pump it out of the work area. With a dry working area conditions will facilitate the construction work.
Anticipation Against Water
If in normal buildings, the basic principle of water piping utilities uses the gravity method, where water is flowed from a higher place to a lower place, but in basement design the piping utility planning must be assisted by mechanical devices.
For example, in the basement, a bathroom or toilet is built, if it refers to the principle of gravity, the waste water must be channeled to a lower place, considering that the basement area has a low floor level, the waste water must be pumped up so that it can be removed.
Another way that can be done is to make a septic tank that is lower than the basement floor. Given the very important role of the pump, to anticipate mechanical damage to the pump, it is recommended to provide a spare pump.
To facilitate the utility system, usually around the basement a circular drain (ditch) is made which functions to drain waste water into the shelter. From this reservoir, water is pumped up.
The walls in the basement must be designed to be sturdy and strong, considering their function as a retaining wall (resisting soil and water pressure loads). The thickness of the concrete walls ranges from 15-17.5 cm, depending on the depth of the basement floor. Meanwhile, to anticipate water seepage, the walls must be given a waterproofing layer.
The main problem that often arises in the basement area is humidity, considering that it is located below and the percentage of time exposed to sunlight is not too much. Meanwhile, groundwater problems that are not handled properly and completely during the construction of the basement will also cause humid conditions.
Apart from being unhealthy, humid conditions can also damage the room and the objects in it. Basement walls that tend to be damp and wet cause the painting process to not take place perfectly and make the paint uneven. The solution to this is to use waterproof paint to coat the walls.
If you plan to coat the basement walls with wallpaper, you should think about it considering that the main enemy of wallpaper is water. In wet and damp conditions, the wallpaper will be susceptible to fungus. Another material to avoid in humid basement conditions is carpet. Because the carpet material if installed on a damp floor over time will emit an unpleasant odor.
If the basement humidity is a bit high, avoid furniture made of wood, particle board or other materials that are not resistant to humid conditions. It is better to choose furniture made of water resistant, for example, made of plastic.
Basement is a room that is under the ground, so it is very possible if it has high humidity levels. To avoid this, plan a good and correct air circulation system. Therefore it is necessary to think about the air circulation in it.